Регистрация    Вход    Форум    Поиск    FAQ
Filimon    Translit RU/EN    Translit.ru

Список форумов » О СВОЕМ, О ЖЕНСКОМ... » Песочница




 Страница 1 из 1 [ Сообщений: 7 ] 



Автор Сообщение
 Заголовок сообщения: Child custody и все о нем.
 Сообщение Добавлено: 22 июл 2014, 20:15 
Не в сети
Богиня Мудрости
Богиня Мудрости
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 20 авг 2010, 22:34
Сообщения: 6189
Открываю тему по сhild custody – давайте здесь поделимся информацией- всем тем, что знаем.
Начну с себя, делюсь что знаю.

Критерии, которые суд принимает во внимание при назначении сhild custody в статьях Семейного Кодекса, в зависимости от штата, могут быть более подробными или менее.
Многие знакомы с расхожей формулировкой в обьеме критерия « Child’s best interest » или
« The health, safety, and welfare of the child » , а что это включает в себя – не совсем понятно.
Формулировка критериев в статьях Семейного Кодекса в зависимости от штата может варьироваться, но в целом, критерии у судов примерно одни и те же:

Custody determination

1. The parent-child bond
2. Past caretaking
3. Time availability
4. Stability of environment
5. Preference of the child
6. Domestic violence
Что рассматривается под каждым критерием- помещаю ниже.

1. The parent-child bond
Consideration of (1) the amount of time each parent spends with the children
(2)the quality and the appropriateness of the interactions
(3) the degree of emotional engagement, and
(4)whom the child relies on for emotional and other kinds of essential support.

2. Past caretaking.
Consideration of the caretaking role of each parent during the marriage; who was the
primary caretaker. Reliance on past caretaking is a critical factor in the decisional matrix: there is a general agreement among experts that a child usually develops the strongest psychological bond with the parent who has been most involved with his or her daily care and that preservation of this relationship is essential to a child’s healthy development.
Predictability is another major reason that past caretaking has become an increasingly important consideration in custody determination. Reliance on past caretaking will reduce some of the inherent uncertainty about how a child will be cared for following a divorce.
3. Time Availability.
The time that a parent has available to devote to his or her children- who has more flexibility to respond to the child needs – both routine and unanticipated
4. Stability of Environment.
Judges give considerable weight to a parent’s ability to maintain a stable home environment. The emphasis on stability may lead a judge to look with disfavor on a parent who has moved around a lot.
5. Preference of the child.
Consideration of a child wishes, once he or she reaches a certain age, usually 12 or 14.
6. Domestic violence.
The majority of statutes direct judges take into account and weight more heavily than other consideration.

Заостряю внимание, что вышеперечисленные факторы рассматриваются судами в совокупности - у кого из родителей по этим основным критериям больше плюсов, чем минусов, за исключением последнего пункта. :c_laugh

Чуть ниже я немного подробнее остановлюсь на вышеперечисленных критериях, поясню - что под ними подразумевается. ( когда время будет)


Какие вопросы исследуются судом при рассмотрении каждого из критериев, можно рассмотреть на примере Мичиганского Семейного Кодекса

Например -
Factor (a). The love, affection, and other emotional ties existing between the parties involved and the child:
Суд устанавливает наличие следующих обстоятельств:

• Who is the child bonded with?
• Who does the child go to with a problem?
• How does each parent relate with the child?
• How much time does each parent spend with the child each day?
• How often does each parent make the child’s meals?
• How often does each parent bathe the child, put the child to bed, and read the child stories?
• Are the parents able to separate the child’s needs from their own?
• How affectionate is the child with each parent?

Factor (b). The capacity and disposition of the parties involved to give the child love, affection, and guidance and to continue the education and raising of the child in his or her religion or creed, if any:
• Who stays home from work if the child is sick?
• Who usually handles school and homework issues?
• Who usually handles sports and other activities?
• How does each parent discipline the child?
• How does each parent talk to the child?
• How often does each parent involve the child with grandparents, uncles, aunts, and others?
• Who takes the child to church or other religious events?

Factor (c). The capacity and disposition of the parties involved to provide the child with food, clothing, and medical care or other remedial care recognized under the laws of this state in place of medical care, and other material needs:
• Who buys clothes, toys, food, etc. for the child?
• Who attends to any special needs of the child?
• What is the earning capacity of each parent?
• Who has flexibility in their work hours?
• How stable is the job of each parent?
• Who can provide health insurance for the child?
• Who makes doctor’s appointment for the child and takes the child to the doctor?
• Who arranges for childcare?
• If one parent earns more than the other, can child support be used to make things more equal?
• If there is a child support order, is the parent paying support? If there is no order, are the parents providing for the child's needs?

Factor (d). The length of time the child has lived in a stable, satisfactory environment, and the desirability of maintaining continuity:
• Who provides a stable, secure, and safe home environment for the child?
• Who can provide more stability for the child?
• Has either parent moved recently and, if so, why? How has the child adjusted to the move?
Factor (e). The permanence, as a family unit, of the existing or proposed custodial home or homes:
• Who is in each parent’s family unit?
• Will the child live with siblings or half-siblings?

Factor (f). The moral fitness of the parties involved:
• Has either parent had an extra-marital affair the child knew about?
• Has there been physical or verbal abuse, alcohol or drug abuse, poor driving records, physical or sexual abuse of the child, criminal records, or other negative behaviors by either parent?
• How have these behaviors affected the child?
• Have these behaviors had a significant influence on that parent's parenting skills?
Factor (g). The mental and physical health of the parties involved:
• Does either party have a physical or mental health problem that significantly interferes with their ability to care for the child?

Factor (h). The home, school, and community record of the child:
• How does each parent encourage and influence attendance at school?
• Who goes to school conferences and activities?
• Who will make sure the child sees and talks to their friends?
• Who supervises the child’s home responsibilities, like chores?
• Who helps the child with homework?

Factor (i). The reasonable preference of the child, if the court considers the child to be of sufficient age to express a preference:
• It is up to the court to decide whether a child is old enough to state a preference. Courts have considered children as young as eight old enough. The court will give more weight to this factor with children who are older or more mature. There is no age at which a child can decide where he or she wants to live.
• The preference of the child will not be shared with anyone, including attorneys, parents or siblings
.
Factor (j). The willingness and ability of each of the parties to facilitate and encourage a close and continuing parent-child relationship between the child and the other parent or the child and the parents (assuming a relationship with each parent is good for the child):
• How will each parent cooperate with the parenting time schedule?
• Does either parent criticize the other parent in front of the child?
• Will each parent encourage a relationship between the child and the other parent?

Factor (k). Domestic violence, regardless of whether the violence was directed against or witnessed by the child:
• Has either parent been threatening, emotionally abusive, verbally abusive or physically violent?
• Has there been a pattern of domestic violence, including physical and non-physical abuse?

Factor (l). Any other factor considered by the court to be relevant to a particular child custody dispute:
• If a child has special needs, how does each parent take care of those needs?
• Has either parent threatened to kidnap the child?
• Has either parent missed visits with the child or failed to return the child from visits?
• Are there siblings or other children whose custody is relevant to this child’s custody arrangement?
• Are there significant others or new spouses whose relationship with the child affects the child’s best interest?
• Is there a possibility that two or more of the children may be separated?
• How far apart do the parents live? (Especially with regard to parenting time schedules).



(продолжение следует)

_________________
Это у меня не шапка Мономаха...это у меня парик из Чебурашки...


Вернуться к началу 
 Заголовок сообщения: Re: Child custody и все о нем.
 Сообщение Добавлено: 23 июл 2014, 21:25 
Не в сети
Богиня Мудрости
Богиня Мудрости
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 20 авг 2010, 22:34
Сообщения: 6189
zlatah писал(а):
И еще вопрос к вам. Как доказывается моральный и эмоцианнальный обьюз? Ор на ребенка-это обьюз?

Я открыла отдельную тему, задавайте свой вопрос там. Эту оставим как информационную- ссылки на законы и разъяснительное толкование статей.
Child custody Вопросы и ответы

_________________
Это у меня не шапка Мономаха...это у меня парик из Чебурашки...


Вернуться к началу 
 Заголовок сообщения: Re: Child custody и все о нем.
 Сообщение Добавлено: 23 июл 2014, 22:13 
Не в сети
Богиня Мудрости
Богиня Мудрости
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 20 авг 2010, 22:34
Сообщения: 6189
Теперь давайте разберем - что каждый из критериев имеет ввиду

Цитата:
1. The parent-child bond
Consideration of (1) the amount of time each parent spends with the children
(2)the quality and the appropriateness of the interactions
(3) the degree of emotional engagement, and
(4)whom the child relies on for emotional and other kinds of essential support.


По первому пункту определение говорит само за себя - к кому ребенок больше привязан, к кому ребенок бежит чтобы его успокоили, приласкали и тп

Цитата:
2. Past caretaking.
Consideration of the caretaking role of each parent during the marriage; who was the
primary caretaker. Reliance on past caretaking is a critical factor in the decisional matrix: there is a general agreement among experts that a child usually develops the strongest psychological bond with the parent who has been most involved with his or her daily care and that preservation of this relationship is essential to a child’s healthy development.
Predictability is another major reason that past caretaking has become an increasingly important consideration in custody determination. Reliance on past caretaking will reduce some of the inherent uncertainty about how a child will be cared for following a divorce
.
Второй критерий подразумевает - кто был primary caretaker - кто с ребенком проводил больше времени, кто ребенка возил на врачебные аппоинтменты, спортивные секции, школу, ходил на школьные собрания, делал уроки с ребенком и тп.
Хочу обратить внимание на Predictability фактор при рассмотрении данного критерия и Пункта 4 - суды не полагаются на гипотетические заверения и клятвенные обещания делать что-то в будущем, потому что того, чего не делали в прошлом, не проверить. Суды более охотно отдадут предпочтение тому, кто это делал в прошлом..
Цитата:
3. Time Availability.
The time that a parent has available to devote to his or her children- who has more flexibility to respond to the child needs – both routine and unanticipated

По третьему критерию - Учитывается график работы, например, если оба родителя работают - кто более flexible в рабочем графике - кто может отводить в школу, забирать, кто может забирать ребенка из школы, если это придется делать в срочных ситуациях. Если оба родителя работают- с кем будет ребенок.
В одних штатах отдадут например предпочтение родителю, у которого родственники будут бэйбиситить с ребенком ( то есть не новое лицо, а знакомый человек), нежели тому, кто скажет, что наймет бэйбиситтера. В других штатах не отдают предпочтения никаким родственникам, потому что понимают, что полстраны работает, и не у всех есть родственники. По данному критерию - проверяйте у себя по штатам " предпочтения "судов.
Цитата:
4. Stability of Environment.
Judges give considerable weight to a parent’s ability to maintain a stable home environment. The emphasis on stability may lead a judge to look with disfavor on a parent who has moved around a lot
.
Четвертый пункт - один из о-ч-чень значимых.
Что под этим подразумевается - два фактора: а) место проживание родителя, школа детей б) его финансовая стабильность.
Предпочтение отдается ( если это имеется в данной ситуации) тому родителю, который остается в том же доме, где жили дети. Считается, что развод -это драма для детей, а еще и перемена места жительства добавляет раздрай в душе ребенка. Поэтому, если возможно сохранить место проживание и оставить ту же школу - предпочтение отдадут родителю, который остается в этом доме.
Если один родитель остается в доме, где проживают дети, а второй родитель либо пока не имеет своего угла, либо переехал далеко и дети с ним не жили, принимается опять-таки фактор predictability = на уже имееющееся "насиженное гнездо" легче располагать, нежели полагаться на чьи-то гипотетические обещания заиметь место жительства в будущем.
Цитата:
5. Preference of the child.
Consideration of a child wishes, once he or she reaches a certain age, usually 12 or 14.

Ну тут как бы все понятно - по достижении определенного возраста, могут спросить детей - с кем предпочитают жить из родителей. Не факт, что прислушаются или это будет решающим фактором. Как я уже говорила выше, факторы рассматриваются в совокупности, а не отдельно взятые. Если пара-тройка более важных факторов перевесит в пользу другого родителя, то пожелания детей могут остаться без внимания.
Цитата:
6. Domestic violence.
The majority of statutes direct judges take into account and weight more heavily than other consideration

Наличие в анамнезе у родителя ДВ судами принимается во внимание, однако хочу акцентировать этот факт - все будет зависеть от конкретных обстоятельств - давность, количество, видели ли (слышали) ли дети и тп. Автоматической дисквалификации это отнюдь не означает.Могут назначаться меры временного характера, например -court ordered batterer intevention program, supervised visitations

_________________
Это у меня не шапка Мономаха...это у меня парик из Чебурашки...


Вернуться к началу 
 Заголовок сообщения: Re: Child custody и все о нем.
 Сообщение Добавлено: 23 июл 2014, 22:54 
Не в сети
Богиня Мудрости
Богиня Мудрости
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 20 авг 2010, 22:34
Сообщения: 6189
По всем штатам концепция присуждения кастоди фактически одинакова - изначально каждый родитель имеет право на свои 50%. Процент сдвигается в ту или иную сторону в зависимости от
а) перечисленных выше критериев,
б) возраст ребенка имеет значение, если он инфант-тодлер. Чем меньше ребенок, тем больше он будет с матерью, поскольку понятное дело - если ребенок на грудном вскармливании, то папа это обеспечить не может. Поэтому время и продоложительность визитов папы в данном случае будет напрямую зависеть от возраста ребенка. В каких-то штатах не предусмотрены вообще overnight stay с папиком детьми до 18 месяцев, только по 2-3 часа, к примеру 2-3 раза в неделю.
Чуть позже добавлю примерную схему по возрасту.

_________________
Это у меня не шапка Мономаха...это у меня парик из Чебурашки...


Вернуться к началу 
 Заголовок сообщения: Re: Child custody и все о нем.
 Сообщение Добавлено: 25 окт 2015, 20:43 
Не в сети
Богиня Мудрости
Богиня Мудрости
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 24 июл 2010, 08:47
Сообщения: 11897
Шапа, вы не GAL случаем?

_________________
You begin by always expecting good things to happen.
Tom Hopkins


Вернуться к началу 
 Заголовок сообщения: Re: Child custody и все о нем.
 Сообщение Добавлено: 21 июл 2019, 15:34 
Не в сети
Богиня Мудрости
Богиня Мудрости
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 20 авг 2010, 22:34
Сообщения: 6189
Помещаю сюда ссылку по поводу
CUSTODY WITH AUTISTIC CHILD
Цитата:
Over many years of being a divorce lawyer and the parent of a child with autism, I have compiled a lengthy list of factors you should consider when dealing with the issue of where the child will live (physical custody).
Custody factors to consider:
· Who has been the primary caregiver for the child?
· Whose schedule is most workable for taking care of the child?
· Which of you really wants to be most involved with the child?
· If the answers to those questions are “both parents", consider Joint Custody.
· Do either of you travel frequently?
· Do either of you have long or unusual work schedules?
· Are either of you studying for a diploma or degree?
· Do you and your spouse have very similar goals, interests and values?
· Are you and your spouse able to work together to resolve problems?
· Do you and your spouse agree on the religion of the child?
· Do you and your spouse agree on the education plan for the child?
· Do you and your spouse agree on medical care for the child?
· Do you and your spouse agree on extracurricular activities for the child?

Are you or your spouse likely to have a boyfriend or girlfriend in the picture? If so, how will this impact on time and relationships with the child?
· How will grandparents be involved in the child’s life?
· Are both you and your spouse good, competent, responsible parents?
· What visitation schedule will work best for everyone concerned?
· Where are you, your spouse and the child likely to be living after the divorce?
· Will the child be required to change schools if she lives with you or with your spouse after the divorce?
· With whom does your child want to live after the divorce?
· With whom does your child want to live after the divorce?

Before the custody issues are resolved, you must also evaluate visitation, as it goes “hand-in-glove" with custody. The following issues need to be considered when determining what type of custody and visitation will be best for the child.

Visitation factors to consider:
· Walk through all the questions of Custody consideration, in the context of visitation.
· How far will the noncustodial parent live from the custodial parent’s home, from the child’s school and from the noncustodial parent’s work? This will affect whether mid-week overnight visitation is feasible.
· At what time does the child need to be picked from day care or after school activities, and from where will that parent be driving to pick him up?
· What is the child’s religious observance or religious training schedule?
· Has the child had input as to the visitation schedule? The appropriate amount of input will depend upon the child’s age and maturity.
· Does the custody and visitation schedule allow the children sufficient time to spend time with their friends, grandparents and other relatives?
· Does the holiday schedule accommodate travel time to visit out of town relatives?
· Is the schedule disruptive of the child’s sports leagues, music lessons, dance classes? Usually these issues can easily be worked out simply by good communication between the parents.
· Does the summer schedule allow each parent sufficient blocks of time for travel?
· Does the summer schedule prevent the child from participating in summer camps or sports leagues and tournaments?
· Is the child being shuffled around too much? There are many ways to work a schedule in order to minimize the number of times the child goes back and forth between parents, while not reducing the noncustodial parent’s parenting time with the child. Does the child struggle with transitions?
· Is the child living out of a suitcase?
· Does the child have a clear sense of where “home" is?

· Does the child feel as though she still has two parents, not just one parent and a visitor?
In addition to evaluating all of these factors, there are other considerations to be addressed when you are divorcing and your child has special needs.
Special needs custody and visitation factors
· Which parent has been the primary caregiver since the special need or disability was diagnosed?
· With whom has the child bonded? Sadly, sometimes a parent does not bond with their disabled child.
· What has each parent’s response been to the child’s special needs? Some parents live in denial of their child’s disability. Others fight with the doctors about the medications, treatments and therapies. Yet others are simply too irresponsible to reliably administer the child’s medications or to have a critically ill child’s life in their hands for extended periods of time. Some are passive aggressive, and agree to do things they don’t want to do, and then just don’t do them.
· How supportive and cooperative has each parent been of the child’s special needs and treatment? Some parents devote their lives to doing whatever they can for their special needs child. Others turn their backs, minimize the situation, or even treat the child with cruelty, blaming the child for the stress and expenses.
· What are the daily schedules of each parent? Special needs children have three times as many sick days and school absences as typical children. Which parent will be available for care for the child on all these days?
· How involved is each parent in the child’s daily care: home therapy and modifications; medication administration; transportation to doctors, therapists and treatments; administrative aspects of the child’s special needs, such as making appointments, handling insurance issues, researching options available for the child and determining a course of treatment or action plan?
· How has each parent’s life changed since the child was diagnosed?
· How will the different possible custody alternatives affect the child’s schedule, comfort, treatments, therapies, schooling and medication administration?
· What do the child’s teachers, therapists and medical professionals suggest as to which custody arrangement will be in the child’s best interests?

продолжение следует

_________________
Это у меня не шапка Мономаха...это у меня парик из Чебурашки...


Вернуться к началу 
 Заголовок сообщения: Re: Child custody и все о нем.
 Сообщение Добавлено: 21 июл 2019, 15:38 
Не в сети
Богиня Мудрости
Богиня Мудрости
Аватара пользователя

Зарегистрирован: 20 авг 2010, 22:34
Сообщения: 6189
Цитата:
· What does the child want? Your child has already faced and endured more than many people will during a long lifetime. Treat your child with respect and dignity. Determine what the child’s wishes are on custody.
· How likely is the noncustodial parent to properly follow through on the child’s medication, treatments and therapies during that parent’s period of visitation? How has this parent done on these things before and during the divorce? Has the child missed medication or missed therapy or treatments when with this parent?
· How likely is the noncustodial parent to properly handle the child’s daily care when the child is with them? Does the child come home dirty, smelly, hungry or tired from that parent? Do the child’s clothes come home dirty or not at all? Does the child’s homework get done when with that parent?
· How likely is the noncustodial parent to follow the consistent schedule and routine of the child at that parent’s home? Special needs children usually need more consistency and predictability than typical children. If one parent refuses to maintain the routine the child is used to, it will be disruptive for the child. Meal times, bath time, bedtime, waking up time and other routine matters need to be consistent for the child at both households.
· Think about where visitation will occur.
Will that setting be appropriate for the child’s condition?
Will the child be comfortable and safe there?
Will it be an appropriate environment for the child?
If the child has asthma, a household with smokers will be harmful. If the child has life-threatening allergies, for example, to peanuts, visitation where people routinely ignore this and serve the child peanut butter could be fatal.
Will the child have a bed to sleep on?
Who else will live or stay over at that household? If your child is nonverbal, he is a natural target for abusers and child molesters because he cannot report what happens.
Will your child’s wheelchair fit into and throughout the house? Has a ramp been built so your child can get inside without the indignity of being carried?
· How will the different possible visitation alternatives affect the child’s schedule, treatments, schooling, comfort, therapies and medication administration?
· Who will be helping with child care at that household?
· What do the child’s teachers, therapists and medical professionals suggest as the visitation that would be in the child’s best interests?
· Again, what does the child want? Your child has already faced and endured more than many people will during a long lifetime. Treat your child with respect and dignity. Determine what the child’s wishes are on visitation.
· Where is the equipment located that the child needs, for mobility, for therapy, for breathing treatments?
· Has the noncustodial parent completed appropriate training to be qualified to take care of your child’s medical needs?
· Does the noncustodial parent have a back-up plan in case there is an emergency?
· How will the child get to emergency medical care from the noncustodial parent’s house?
The standard the courts are supposed to use when deciding child custody issues is the best interests of the child. Use these detailed lists to determine what custody and visitation arrangement will be in the best interests of your special needs child, and then work with your lawyer to build and prove your case. Knowing what to do can improve your likelihood of achieving a good result for you and your special needs child.


_________________
Это у меня не шапка Мономаха...это у меня парик из Чебурашки...


Вернуться к началу 
Показать сообщения за:  Поле сортировки  
 
 Страница 1 из 1 [ Сообщений: 7 ] 




Список форумов » О СВОЕМ, О ЖЕНСКОМ... » Песочница




Кто сейчас на конференции

Сейчас этот форум просматривают: нет зарегистрированных пользователей и гости: 11

 
 

 
Вы не можете начинать темы
Вы не можете отвечать на сообщения
Вы не можете редактировать свои сообщения
Вы не можете удалять свои сообщения
Вы не можете добавлять вложения

Найти:
Перейти: